A variety of NDT methods for
assessing asphalt and Portland cement concrete quality have been investigated
over the years. These include both “simple and easy to use” and “higher
complexity and more time consuming” NDT methods. Several of the “simple and
easy to use” methods are currently implemented by SHAs in QA specifications (e.g.
penetration resistance, rebound hammer, maturity, covermeter for concrete, and
field density and stiffness of asphalt mixtures). However, limited systematic
assessment of the potential use of NDT in a QA process and acceptance
procedures has been investigated to take full advantage of the “added value” of
such methods. Specifically, quick assessment of real time material uniformity, early warning
of potential defects that can be coupled with quick corrective actions as
construction goes on, inspection of higher quantity of highway materials
without destructive or damaging effects related to coring and other destructive
testing. In addition, several of the “higher
complexity” NDT methods that have been used in many cases for forensic/research
investigations (such as Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, Impact Echo, Ground
PenetratiingRadar, AIMS aggregate image analysis), have been further developed
and coupled with easier and faster to use instrumentation, and simpler data
analysis algorithms and software that can be easily operated by trained technical
level construction personal (for QC testing) and agency inspectors (for QA and
One of the major efforts to close the gap between practitioners dealing
with day-to-day quality assessment testing and researchers developing and
refining NDT technologies is the establishment of the Nondestructive Evaluation
(NDE) Web Manual by Federal Highway Administration. The NDE Web Manual can
provide valuable and up-to-date feedback on the potential use of applicable NDT
methods in QA and QC operations for highway structures.
Administration, FHWA. “Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) Web Manual.” Washington
The American Concrete Institute has long established a guide documenting
the potential use of several of these NDT methods in concrete that can be
coupled with recent developments in this field with several of the SHRP2
reports in regards to developing an NDT based QA process for concrete.
Concrete Institute, ACI, “ACI 228.2R-13 Report on Nondestructive Test Methods
for Concrete in Structures.” Pp. 53-61. Farmington Hills, MI 2013.
Several NCHRP and SHRP2 studies have examined recent developments and
applicability of NDT methods in asphalt and Portland cement concrete highway
structures. These can serve to identify NDT methods that can be included in the
various components of an NDT based QA process either for concrete or asphalt,
along with the extensive literature on past studies recommending integrating multiple
NDT methods in QA.
Highway Research Program (SHRP 2) Report S2-R06A-RR-1: “Nondestructive Testing
to Identify Concrete Bridge Deck Deterioration.” 2016.
Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 626: “NDT Technology for Quality
Assurance of HMA Pavement Construction.” 2009.
Highway Research Program (NCHRP) Report 626 Volume 2: “NDT Technology for
Quality Control and Acceptance of Flexible Pavement Construction.” 2008.
Breysse, D., G. Klysz,
X. Dérobert, C. Sirieix, and J. F. Lataste. “How to Combine Several
Non-Destructive Techniques for a Better Assessment of Concrete Structures,”
Cement and Concrete Research, vol. 38, no. 6, pp. 783–793, 2008.
Lim, M., and H. Cao.
“Combining Multiple NDT Methods to Improve Testing Effectiveness,” Construction
and Building Materials, vol. 38, pp. 1310–1315, 2013.
Verma S.K., Bhadauria
S.S., and S. Akhtar. “Review of Nondestructive Testing Methods for Condition
Monitoring of Concrete Structures.” Journal of Construction Engineering. Volume
2013, article #834572, 11 pp. 2013.