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Safety Evaluation of Innovative On-Street Bikeway Designs

Description:

A growing number of on-street bikeway designs have been installed around the country in an effort to encourage more biking trips while reducing crashes. New on-street bikeway designs include but are not limited to: protected intersections and segments, bicycle boxes, two-way cycle tracks, two stage turn queue boxes, buffered bicycle lanes, contra-flow bicycle lanes, through bicycle lanes, planters, and so on.

Research is therefore needed to better understand if new on-street bikeway designs along road segments and intersections are increasing safety for bicyclists.

Objective:

The objective of the proposed study:

  1. Conduct safety evaluation of new on-street bicycle facility designs and develop Crash Modification Factors (CMF).

  2. Provide guidance on design of the facilities studied.

Benefits:

Providing a recommendation for future countermeasures to reduce bicycle crashes.

Related Research:

A growing number of on-street bikeway designs have been installed around the country in an effort to encourage more biking trips while reducing crashes. Research is therefore needed to better understand if these new on-street bikeway designs along road segments and intersections are increasing safety for bicyclists. This safety factor would include interactions with other bicyclists, pedestrians, and motorists. New on-street bikeway designs include but are not limited to: protected intersection, two-way cycle tracks, two stage turn queue boxes, buffered bicycle lanes, advisory bikelanes, etc.

Buffered bike lanes can increase a bicyclist’s perceived safety and comfort which may increase more bicyclists to ride on the roadway (1). Designing roads segments and intersections to accommodate vulnerable road users can slow traffic down and help reduce crashes. While improved bicycle infrastructure can be a factor for crash reductions, driver speed and a bicyclists lane positioning is a key factor for a higher driver yield rate (2). On-street bikeway designs created to encourage bicyclists to take the full lane and ride with traffic safely is an ideal design. For the longer road segments and near intersections, bicycle crashes were significantly more likely to be fatal when they involved motorists traveling straight, were along roadways between intersections, and involved motorists traveling in the same direction as the bicyclist (5). As more facilities are installed, future research could evaluate a design across various volume thresholds. Future work to evaluate the designs should include actual crash data. The most likely benefit will come from comparing intersection designs on protected bikeways with traditional bike lanes at intersections (6).

(1) Influence of Bike Lane Buffer Types on Perceived Comfort and Safety of Bicyclists and Potential Bicyclists Nathan McNeil, Christopher M. Monsere, and Jennifer D Volume 2520 DOI:10.3141/2520-15

(2) When Do Drivers Yield to Cyclists at Unsignalized Roundabouts? Empirical Evidence and Behavioral Analysis Ary P. Silvano, Xiaoliang Ma, and Haris N. Koutsopoulos https://doi.org/10.3141/2520-04

(3) Enhancing Cycling Safety at Signalized Intersections Analysis of Observed Behavior Jeffrey M. Casello, Adam Fraser, Alex Mereu, and Pedram Fard Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2662, 2017, pp. 59–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2662-07.

(4) Level-of-Service Model for Protected Bike Lanes Nick Foster, Christopher M. Monsere, Jennifer Dill, and Kelly Clifton Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2520, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2015, pp. 90–99. DOI: 10.3141/2520-11

(5) Application of the Location–Movement Classification Method for Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Typing Robert J. Schneider and Joseph Stefanich Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2601, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016, pp. 72–83. DOI: 10.3141/2601-09

(6) User Behavior and Perceptions at Intersections with Turning and Mixing Zones on Protected Bike Lanes Christopher M. Monsere, Nick Foster, Jennifer Dill, and Nathan McNeil Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2520, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2015, pp. 112–122. DOI: 10.3141/2520-13.

Tasks:

1. Conduct literature review to identify the list of innovative bicycle (and pedestrian) facility designs which are new and yet common enough that they can be studied.

  1. Identify the implementing agencies, and assess the readily available safety databases for the evaluation of the newly implemented bikeway designs.

  2. Collect data in the field if existing data sets are not sufficient.

  3. Evaluate the countermeasures (i.e. develop the CMFs). In absence of after period crash data propose an appropriate analytical methods (Empirical Bayes, Full Bayesian, Propensity Score Matching, etc.) that can help to overcome the data limitations.

  4. Develop design guidance for the studied on-street bicycle facilities.

Implementation:

Produce CMFs for on-street bicycle facilities and specific guidance to inform roadway and intersection design.

Relevance:

Roadway designers and planners are eager for information on how to design roadways and intersections for use by multiple modes, including motor vehicles and bicycles. This project would provide important information on how to do so.

Sponsoring Committee:ANF20, Bicycle Transportation
Research Period:24 - 36 months
Research Priority:High
RNS Developer:Jason Jackman – University of South Florida; Krista Nordback – University of North Carolina; Rebecca Sanders – Toole Design Group; Bahar Dadashova – Texas A&M Transportation Institute; Drew Gingras – Vanasse Hangen Brustlin.
Source Info:Source of information: committee members and literature
(1) Influence of Bike Lane Buffer Types on Perceived Comfort and Safety of Bicyclists and Potential Bicyclists Nathan McNeil, Christopher M. Monsere, and Jennifer D Volume 2520 DOI:10.3141/2520-15
(2) When Do Drivers Yield to Cyclists at Unsignalized Roundabouts? Empirical Evidence and Behavioral Analysis Ary P. Silvano, Xiaoliang Ma, and Haris N. Koutsopoulos https://doi.org/10.3141/2520-04
(3) Enhancing Cycling Safety at Signalized Intersections Analysis of Observed Behavior Jeffrey M. Casello, Adam Fraser, Alex Mereu, and Pedram Fard Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2662, 2017, pp. 59–66. http://dx.doi.org/10.3141/2662-07.
(4) Level-of-Service Model for Protected Bike Lanes Nick Foster, Christopher M. Monsere, Jennifer Dill, and Kelly Clifton Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2520, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2015, pp. 90–99. DOI: 10.3141/2520-11
(5) Application of the Location–Movement Classification Method for Pedestrian and Bicycle Crash Typing Robert J. Schneider and Joseph Stefanich Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2601, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2016, pp. 72–83. DOI: 10.3141/2601-09
(6) User Behavior and Perceptions at Intersections with Turning and Mixing Zones on Protected Bike Lanes Christopher M. Monsere, Nick Foster, Jennifer Dill, and Nathan McNeil Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2520, Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2015, pp. 112–122. DOI: 10.3141/2520-13.
Date Posted:05/31/2018
Date Modified:12/04/2018
Index Terms:Bikeways, Highway safety, Highway design, Cyclists, Traffic safety,
Cosponsoring Committees: 
Subjects    
Highways
Pedestrians and Bicyclists
Design
Safety and Human Factors

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