Accurate and frequent construction progress
tracking provides critical input data for project systems such as cost and
schedule control as well as billing. Traditional progress tracking techniques
are labor intensive, sometimes subject to negotiation, and often driven by
arcane rules. Attempts to improve progress tracking of building construction
projects have recently focused mainly on automation, using technologies such as
laser scanners, Global Positioning System (GPS), hand-held computers, voice
recognition, wireless networks, and other technologies in various combinations.
Three dimensional (3D) terrestrial
laser scanners (commonly referred to as LiDARs) coupled with four dimensional (4D) information
models (3D information models + project schedule) have shown great potential
for saving time and cost for recording project 3D status of building construction
projects and thus to support some categories of project progress tracking.
Although both LiDARs and 3D information models are being investigated and used
in multiple applications by department of transportations (DOTs), their potential for monitoring construction
of transportation projects have not yet been explored.
the past few decades, various advanced technologies have been adopted in the
transportation industry to improve the accuracy and efficiency in design and
construction, which includes GPS, LiDAR, and information modeling.
Transportation design and construction processes have been gradually improved
with the emergence of these technologies. For example, the impact of 3D
information modeling for highway design is substantial. As the benefits of
building information modeling (BIM) have been observed in the vertical design
and construction industry, an increasing number of professionals have started
to apply 3D information models (also referred to as BIM, Heavy BIM, Horizontal
BIM, virtual design and construction (VDC), and civil information modeling
(CiM)) in the horizontal transportation industry. Many state DOTs as well as their contractors and consultants in
the U.S. have been using 3D information models for various applications,
mostly in project planning, design and construction phases. LiDAR technology is
extensively used by state DOTs for spatial data collection as it enables fast,
accurate and safe data collection compared to traditional surveying methods.
research has focused on developing automated, efficient and effective
recognition of building project 3D BIM objects in LiDAR data. This is done by
comparing as-built data (3D point clouds), which is captured using LiDAR, with
as-planned data, 4D information model (3D design information model + project
schedule) using object recognition algorithms. The findings from these studies
suggest that accurate tracking of
building project progress is possible by combining 4D information models with
3D LiDAR point clouds.
The main objective of this research is to develop
a guidebook for DOTs to automate progress tracking of their transportation
projects, bridge construction projects in particular, by leveraging 3D LiDAR
point clouds and 4D information models. A progress tracking system that is
efficient, accurate, and objective will
help DOTs better monitor their projects, and take timely actions when
necessary. Such automated progress tracking system should help improve
construction productivity, as well as project schedule and cost performance for
research objective will be achieved by completing the following tasks:
1: Conduct a review of the past and current practices in project progress
tracking methods in the construction industry.
2: Identify current uses of 3D/4D information
models and LiDAR used in the transportation construction industry as well as
the available support technologies in 3D/4D information models and LiDAR.
3: Identify the technical requirements for DOTs and contractors to implement 3D/4D
information models and LiDAR for construction project progress tracking. These
technical requirements include process change, equipment, and personnel training.
4: Develop tools to help DOTs and contractors evaluate their readiness for the
new project control process.
5: Assess the costs and benefits of using LiDAR point clouds and 3D/4D information
models for project control.
6: Develop specific strategies and guidelines for the implementation of LiDAR point
clouds and 3D/4D information models for project control.