This problem statement was developed in response to the key research needs identified by the Regional Air Quality Subcommittee of the TRB ADC20 (Transportation-Air Quality)
full committee, during the TRB 2015 meeting.
State departments of transportation (DOTs) need a set of analysis practices and tools to estimate emissions for criteria
pollutants, greenhouse gases (e.g., nitrous oxide and methane), and mobile
source air toxics based on the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES) model, where applicable.
A number of studies
have provided pieces of the information needed by State DOTs and regional
planning organizations, but stakeholders still identify a need for more
consistent methods and tools for analysis. The results of past studies are either incomplete or are outdated.
Although the projects not expected to produce new analysis methods for control measure assessment, it will provide a set of tools and associated instructions for using the tools to assess selected options within a category of emissions control strategy. This project will also include innovative mitigation measures that have only been piloted
or explored in recent years.
One of the key contributions of this study should be to provide analysts with a uniform set of assumptions to be used in strategy assessments, such as the discount rate, and the anticipated project lifetime. These methods should be based on standard practice for Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality (CMAQ) evaluations and federal agency guidelines for cost and economic analyses. The product of this research project shall also provide suggested weighting system for assessing the cost effectiveness of strategies
that reduce more than one criteria pollutant.
The urgency of this research results from the 2014 EPA proposal to revise the ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) to a level within the range of 65 to 70 ppb (from 75 ppb) that will cause States to
pursue methods of emission reduction strategies. New PM-2.5 nonattainment areas will also
benefit from this project. Furthermore, Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) is establishing performance measures that will require State DOTs to meet
on-road vehicle emission reduction goals. These goals will need to be
quantified using a defined systematic approach to estimate the emission
reductions of various strategies and that provides greater consistency and
accountability then current analysis methods.
There have been several studies undertaken investigating multi-pollutant
control benefits. Most of these have been non-sector (mobile, stationary, area)
specific. This study would be specific to the transportation community. It
should be noted that one study (see FHWA, 2006, below) did investigate several
strategies and their impact on the transportation, but this study did not
include hazardous air pollutants or GHGs.
(1) Air Quality Management in the United States, National Research
Council of the NAS report, 2004
(2) Multi-Pollutant Emission Benefits of Transportation
Strategies, FHWA, 2006
(3) Improving Emission Inventories for Effective Air Quality
Management Across North America, NARSTO-05-01, 2009
(4) Multi-Pollutant Air Quality Management, JAWMA, 2010
(5) A Risk-based Assessment And Management Framework for Multipollutant
Air Quality, AWMA Proceedings, Frey, et al, 2009
(6) Protecting Human Health From Air Pollution Shifting From
a Single-pollutant to a Multipollutant Approach, Epidemiology, 2010
(7) Vision for Clean Air: A Framework for Air Quality and
Climate Planning, California Air Resources Board, 2012
(8) Evaluate the Interactions between Transportation-Related
Particulate Matter, Ozone, Air Toxics, Climate Change, and Other Air-Pollutant
Control Strategies, NCHRP 25-25, Task 59 report by CS and ERG, July 19, 2010.
(9) Reference Sourcebook for Reducing Greenhouse Gas
Emissions from Transportation Sources, FHWA Project DTFH61-09-F-00117, by RAND
Corporation and RSG, Inc., February 2012.
|Index Terms:||Air quality management, Metropolitan planning organizations, Exhaust gases, Pollutants, State departments of transportation, Air pollution, Particulates, Ozone, Motor Vehicle Emission Simulator (MOVES), Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Improvement Program, |